Terms we use and endorse as growers of Advanced Ornamental Landscape Trees:
   (note: descriptions may vary somewhat from other third party standards - which as a result we do not endorse)

Currently for 'Age'  we refer to and indicate the number Transplants of a Field Grown Tree - expressed as 3xT, 4xT, 5xT etc.
Age in years is not nearly as important as knowing and quantifying the work carried out during those years.
The transplanting process enables grading, root pruning (for division and direction) and re planting at preferred row/line spacing.
This regular lifting, grading and working results in well divided, compact root balls for better re-establishment in the new landscape.
Typically a container grown tree is re-potted each year, while a field grown tree is transplanted every three years.

Apical Dominance:
Dominance of the main stem (terminal bud) as compared to its neighboring stems (lateral buds)
Applies typically when appraising the leader but equally to all stems and branches.

The relationship between above ground section of the tree to the underground section of the tree.
Can be measured as Height x Caliper (Index) / rootball volume.

Bark Ridge:
Raised or furrowed bark in the crotch of a branch union. Formed by expansion or compaction as the tree grows and limb sizes increase.
The lack of a raised bark ridge can often be associated with tight Branch Angles and an indicator of Included Bark.

Branch Angle:
The angle formed by the branch in relation to the trunk.
Varieties that naturally occur with a branch angle of 45 degrees or more, tend to have better attachment.
Varieties of narrower branch angle are more prone to Included Bark and corresponding, occasional limb loss.

Branch Cluster:
At the start of a seasonal growth period, some species will tend to sprout multiple stems arising from the same/similar point.
This clustering or crowding usually results in not enough space for each branch to properly develop a good Branch Union or Attachment.
Branch clusters are best controlled by the timely removal of some of the stems.

Branch Union and Branch Attachment:
Where the branch attaches to the trunk and the quality of this attachment.

Co-Dominant Stems:
Two or more competing main stems/leaders.
Mostly these are undesirable, except where the form of the tree being grown, dictates otherwise ie: Vasing, Multistem or Topiary.
Ultimately the unchecked weight of co-dominant stems, along with often tighter Branch Angles, will result in substantial canopy failure.

Crown Symmetry:
Referring to the growth, direction and spacing of branches in the canopy.
Good crown balance will be fairly even on either side of the trunk (not greater than 40:60)
Have even distribution around the axis of the trunk (also not greater than 40:60)
Have balanced distribution of the branches along the trunk, with a lack of Branch Clustering and or rapid Growth Extension.

The structural pruning and or training to a specific shape/framework.

Street Tree:         Single Leader, cleared stem, up to 1/3 at time of supply.
Avenue Tree:      Single Leader, cleared stem, up to 2.0m at time of supply, trees of 100lt/35mm plus.
Feathered Tree:  Single Leader, and all/most side shoots.
Vasing Tree:       Single low trunk, vasing with 2 or more co-dominant stems
Multi Stem:        3-4 trunks/stems (arising from single root ball)
Copse:               Two or more trees clumped/grown together in single rootball.
Bushy:                Single mostly upright dominant Leader, tip pruned bushy canopy.
Standard:           Tree with canopy trimmed/trained on single upright cleared stem of uniform height.
Topiary:              Tree trimmed regularly to achieve a desired shape of canopy.
Espaliered:         Tree trained (normally on trellising) to grow flat against a wall.

Growth Extension:
A measure of the amount of new growth for that season. Indication of good cultivation that has produced the desired growth extension.

Included Bark:
Where bark becomes included in the Branch Union, often resulting in compromised, weaker attachment.
(Targeted pruning and training while a tree is young can encourage better Branch Angles and correspondingly less Included Bark. Some species will retain this training, others are less likely and tend to revert to their natural form)

A calculation indicating the amount of canopy growth. Expressed as Height x Caliper.
Somewhat useful for comparing trees of a similar root ball/container size. Older trees potentially having more canopy than a younger trees.
Ultimately the time of the growing season may determine the Index size available.
(Note: Index alone can also be misused as it does not indicate trees of good proportion, consider also the Stem Taper and Balance of the tree)

Internode Length:
The distance between nodes (which buds, leaves or branches arise from) on the stems of the plant.
If cultivated correctly internode length is relatively even with the longer not exceeding the shorter by more then 30-50%.

Northern Marker:
A ribbon, tied in the north facing branches, of a semi-advanced tree. (100ltr/35mm or bigger)
If re-planted with this same Sun hardened northerly aspect, a tree will re-establish quicker, with less transplant shock, in it's new home.

Reduction/Removal Pruning:
Reduction cuts, reduce the length of heavy, co-dominant stems, or other stems not contributing to the desired canopy structure.
Removal cuts (employed, only where the removed shoot is less than 50% of the main shoot)
Removal cuts are often used to underprune, target Branch Clusters and for thinning of uneven branch distribution.

Rootball Occupancy:
Referring to the population, growth, direction and spread of roots within the rootball.
Good division and direction is achieved by transplanting and potting that incorporates mechanical root pruning.
Good occupancy is achieved by choosing the appropriate container size or when harvesting field grown trees, the correct tree spade size.

Stem Caliper:
The diameter of the stem/trunk at a specific point.
Typically 300mm above the ground, or for smaller trees 20% of the height, and expressed in mm.

Stem Taper:
A measurement of the reducing caliper along the stem. Can be measured as Caliper/Height, with 10 being a good minimum.
Good Taper will improve the trees ability to be able to support itself and re-establish into the landscape.
Poor taper is often the result of incorrect line spacing and/or other cultivation inputs.

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