Apical Dominance
Dominance of the main central stem
or terminal bud of the plant ie; taller and more vigorous, over the other side stems or lateral buds.

Bark Ridge
Raised or furrowed bark in the crotch of a branch union. Formed by expansion or compaction as the tree grows and limb sizes increase.

Branch Attachment
Refers to the quality of attachment to the trunk of the branch.

Branch Angle
The angle formed by the branch in relation to the trunk. Species/Varieties that naturally occur with a branch angle of 45 degrees or more tend to have better attachment. Varieties of narrower branch angle can be prone to included bark which can result in the occasional limb loss.
Pruning/training while the tree is young can help encourage good angles to some extent.

The measurement of the diameter of the stem/trunk at a specific point, usually 300mm above ground.

Caliper to Height to Rootball Volume Ratio (Shoot:Rootball ratio)
A guide of the relationship between bulk growth of the above ground section of the tree to the underground section of the tree.

Crown Balance
The uniformity of the growth of the crown in relation to various growth stresses (wind, spacing, etc.) An good crown balance is a ratio of 50:50 or 40:60 either side of the trunk.

Division and Direction
Division and direction of the root system needs to be continuous and well spaced to ensure increased surface area of the roots thus creating a good qaulity plant.

Internode Length
The distance between nodes (which branches arise from) on the trunk of the plant. These need to be relatively even with the longest internode not exceeding the shortest by more then 20% in length.

Northern Orientation Marker
A peg embedded in the rootbal that indicates the nothern aspect of the nursery.

A technique used to achieve a desired form of a plant (eg clean trunk, single stem, etc)

Radial Symetry
The direction and spacing of branches or roots from around a central point (eg trunk, tap root, etc)

Rootball Occupancy
The spread of the root system within the rootball and it's a ability to hold the soil within the rootball.

Stem Taper
A measurement of the tree's ability to be able to support itself above ground.

Timbertop Advanced Trees


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